World Cup 2018 and racism: How will FIFA police discrimination in Russia?
The 2018 World Cup in Russia begins in less than a week and, before a ball has even been kicked, the issue of racism and how FIFA will act in the event of players being subjected to discriminatory chants, has been raised.
England defender Danny Rose has spoken about the prospect of he and his teammates walking off the pitch in the event of players being targeted — a scenario played down by England manager Gareth Southgate — while FIFA president Gianni Infantino has insisted that plans are in place to deal with any outbreak of racism during the tournament.
Russian football has had to fight long and hard to clean up its reputation in terms of racism in football, so how prepared is the country and FIFA ahead of the World Cup?
Here are the key questions.
Q: What is the background to the concerns about discriminatory chanting in Russia?
A: There have been several recent incidents in Russia during which black players were subjected to abusive chants and banners.
Yaya Toure experienced racial abuse while playing for Manchester City against CSKA Moscow in October 2013, while the likes of Samuel Eto’o, Roberto Carlos, Christopher Samba and Peter Odemwingie also reported similar incidents while playing for Russian clubs.
In Sept 2016, the Fare network, which monitors racist incidents for UEFA, noted that a banana was thrown onto the pitch in the eighth minute of a Champions League tie in Russia between FC Rostov and PSV Eindhoven and remained there for a further 15 minutes before being removed.
Q: Has Russia taken steps to eradicate the problem?
A: The Russian Football Union (RFU) has a commissioner on racism in football and Vitaly Mutko, the deputy prime minister and former minister for sport, insisted ahead of last year’s Confederations Cup that Russia has a “zero tolerance” approach to racism.
“For us in Russia, it is a challenge and a responsibility,” Mutko said. “And I think that this is a perfect solution. FIFA has no compromises, zero tolerance. As for Russia, the Russian Federation and Russian football have taken similar measures, stricter measures in Russia. This is a problem that is not purely Russian. It exists everywhere in the world and, of course, FIFA is fighting this phenomenon. We will support FIFA and in our joint efforts we will try to conqueror this.”
Is white America ready to confront its racism? Philosopher George Yancy says we need a ‘crisis’
George Yancy’s new book, Backlash, grew out of “Dear White America”, a piece on the pervasiveness of white racism that he wrote for the New York Times’ philosophy column, The Stone. After the piece was published on Christmas Eve 2015, Yancy received an extraordinary number of responses from white readers, many of which were aggressively defensive and included racist epithets and threats of physical violence. Backlash extends the argument made in “Dear White America”, and turns personal and philosophic lenses on the vile responses it received.
What was the message of “Dear White America”, and why do you think it proved so provocative?
“Dear White America” was a letter of love. And by letter of love I mean that it was a letter that was an invitation for white people to engage honestly with their racism, to be vulnerable and to let go of their “white innocence”.
After conducting 19 interviews with philosophers and public intellectuals at The Stone, I decided to write a letter that was direct and candid. I tried to create a mutually vulnerable space where white people could reveal the ways in which they harbor racist assumptions, emotions and embodied habits.I also invited white people to explore the ways in which they are complicit with white systemic and institutional power and privilege. It doesn’t follow from this that all white people are members of the KKK or that white people are born racists. That would be ridiculous. Yet, that is what many white people assumed that I meant.
I think that the anger resulted from a defensive posture, one that is linked to a failure of nerve and honesty that is needed for white people to confront courageously the truth about how racism is insidious and constitutes the DNA of white America. Fear can breed anger, but I wanted a courageous white America, one prepared to remove the masks of self-deception, to love in return.
What sorts of response did you get to the piece?
The majority of the white responses were vile, despicable and unconscionable. I was told to commit suicide immediately. I was told to go back to Africa, called a “monkey”, “boy”, “hoodrat”, “pavement ape”, and referred to as excrement. One white person fantasized about using a meat hook on me and another white person said that I ought to be beheaded “ISIS style”. Of course, I was also called by that most horrible, dehumanizing and insulting of words, “nigger”. I couldn’t even keep count of the number of times the N-word was used.
White racism dripped from their lips. The responses pulled from old white racist imagery that depicted black people as bestial and animalistic. What became clear to me are the deep ways in which that discourse, those assumptions and imagery are still quite palpable within the white American psyche.
So much of white America is unprepared and unwilling to have a courageous conversation about racism. They would rather avoid the conversation, blame me, call me a “race baiter”. Some even said that I wrote “Dear White America” to sexually seduce white women. What does that say about the problematic and racist myth and fear of the so-called black male rapist?
Given the racist insults, one might argue that the point that I was trying to make was, in many ways, confirmed. I did receive a few very powerful and beautiful responses from white readers who said to me that they accepted the gift that I offered and that they would critically and honestly engage their racism even as they knew that the challenge was real and requires serious work. But after so many insults, I have come to have profoundly less hope in white America.
Race Isn’t a Risk Factor in Maternal Health. Racism Is.
When 27-year-old activist Erica Garner died on December 30, 2017, many of us grieved the tragic loss of another Black mother.
Because I founded the National Birth Equity Collaborative, media reached out to me for comment. I could still see, in my mind, the faces of the patients I’d taken care of with the condition that caused Garner’s death—peripartum cardiomyopathy, a rare form of heart failure in women who have recently given birth, as Garner had. From my years of OB-GYN practice, I remembered that this illness can have a risk of death as high as 50 percent.
But I looked up the condition again, wanting to remind myself what the risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy are.
When 27-year-old activist Erica Garner died on December 30, 2017, many of us grieved the tragic loss of another Black mother. Because I founded the National Birth Equity Collaborative, media reached out to me for comment. I could still see, in my mind, the faces of the patients I’d taken care of with the condition that caused Garner’s death—peripartum cardiomyopathy, a rare form of heart failure in women who have recently given birth, as Garner had. From my years of OB-GYN practice, I remembered that this illness can have a risk of death as high as 50 percent. But I looked up the condition again, wanting to remind myself what the risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy are. Because I founded the National Birth Equity Collaborative, media reached out to me for comment. I could still see, in my mind, the faces of the patients I’d taken care of with the condition that caused Garner’s death—peripartum cardiomyopathy, a rare form of heart failure in women who have recently given birth, as Garner had. From my years of OB-GYN practice, I remembered that this illness can have a risk of death as high as 50 percent. But I looked up the condition again, wanting to remind myself what the risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy are.
Poppy Jaman on how racism and being caught between cultures triggered depression – Bryony Gordon’s Mad World
Poppy Jaman, chief executive of Mental Health First Aid England, has spoken about how racism, poverty and discrimination prompted her to become a leading mental health educator in the UK.
Speaking to Bryony Gordon for her award-winning podcast, Mad World, the British-Bangladeshi entrepreneur said growing up in the middle of two cultures played a part in her diagnosis of post-natal depression and anxiety, but also made her “incredibly ambitious”.
Jaman, 41, was raised in a Bangladeshi family in Portsmouth. At school, she was one of 10 black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) pupils who were subject to every day acts of discrimination, such as being asked to step aside during a school picture. When she was 13, Jaman’s family moved to an area where they were the only ethnic minority family. On her first night in their new home, someone threw a brick through the window. The eldest English speaker in the household at the time, it fell to Jaman to report the incident to the police.
“Racism made me feel like I needed to get out of Portsmouth,” said Jaman. “It probably triggered the activist in me [too].”
Mental health activism became Jaman’s calling after she was diagnosed with post-natal depression and anxiety following the birth of her first daughter when she was 20. In 2007, the Department of Health asked her to find a way to train people across the country in mental health assistance.
50 years after Kerner and King, racism still matters
“Segregation and poverty have created in the racial ghetto a destructive environment totally unknown to most white Americans. What white Americans have never fully understood — but what the Negro can never forget — is that white society is deeply implicated in the ghetto. White institutions created it, white institutions maintain it and white society condones it.” — Kerner Commission Report, 1968
Fifty years ago today, the public assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.rocked our nation. Eerily similar to the title of King’s final book, “Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?,” his murder sent a powerful shock wave through the soul of America; urban rebellions sprang up in over 100 cities, placing the nation at a political and social crossroads.
But it did not have to be this way.
Fifty years ago, as cities burned from people’s rage at King’s murder, the rest of America had already dismissed and forgotten the damning and prophetic report published only a month earlier by the presidential commission and chaired by Illinois Gov. Otto Kerner. Officially called the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, the Kerner Commission identified systemic racism and poverty as the causes of the major black rebellions in Newark and Detroit the previous summer.
Racism in Education, Religion and Neoliberalism: Empowering the anti-minority extremists?
The highly-educated and hyper-religious Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is consistently failing to apply inclusive, just, and peaceful approaches to resolving the country’s violent inter-communal clashes. The unfolding narrative of recent anti-Muslim riots in six villages scattered throughout the Kandy district, and its aftermath, is remarkably like anti-minority riots since 1915. Further instances of such violence are highly likely unless sincere attempts are made to address the proliferation of racism, particularly by educational and religious institutions, in the context of nation-building under the rule of neoliberalism.
The Unfolding Narrative
What began as a spontaneous altercation between a few individuals taking the law into their own hands to settle a road rage incident, triggered a spiral of violence against the entire life, property and places of worship of Muslims. M.G. Kumarasinghe (41) a Sinhalese lorry driver, was assaulted by three Muslim youth in a spontaneous altercation over his refusal to allow a three-wheel taxi to overtake. The assailants were apprehended, released on bail as is usual in assault cases, and then rearrested following the assault victim’s death seven days later.
As a result of postcolonial racialized minority narratives, such symptomatic violence against the Muslim minority is one among many incidents where Sri Lankans use violence with impunity to settle disputes, and such incidents do not generally spark public outrage and reprisals against those not directly involved.
The funeral of Mr. Kumarasinghe, held in a remote Ambala village in the Kandy district, attracted strangers, including politicians and media personalities. Such an elaborate display of public sympathy would not have happened if the death had no meaning in the anti-Muslim identity politics. Certainly, no evidence of such sympathy was apparent at the funeral of a Muslim person killed in the riots.
The incident in Digana was virtually unknown to most of the country’s population until forces unrelated to Kumarasinghe’s family resorted to anti-Muslim violence, which spread to other areas. Attacks continued despite the imposition of a curfew, until about a week after Kumarasinghe’s death. The locations of the attacks where Muslims are isolated among Sinhalese and Tamils seem to have a spatial logic that embodies intentional expressions of nation-building narratives.
Infantino: FIFA will not tolerate racism at 2018 World Cup
FIFA president Gianni Infantino has said racism will not be tolerated at next year’s World Cup in Russia, adding that referees will have the power to stop or even abandon matches if discriminatory incidents take place.
Several players, including Brazil and former Zenit St Petersburg forward Hulk, have voiced concerns that racism could mar the tournament, saying such incidents are a regular feature of domestic league games in the country.
Infantino said in a video statement that anti-discrimination was a “high priority” for FIFA, and that the organization would deal with offences firmly.
“We’ll make sure that no incidents will happen and… we have for the first time in a World Cup the so-called, three-step procedure where a referee can stop a game or even abandon a game if there are discriminatory or racist incidences,” he added.
“We will be very, very firm on that so we can expect fair play in Russia.”
Infantino, who was elected FIFA president in February of last year, also said technology would play a big role at the tournament, although a final decision on using video assistant referees (VARs) would only be taken next year.
VAR, which involves officials watching the action remotely and drawing the match referee’s attention to officiating mistakes or missed serious incidents, is already in use in the top-flight leagues of Germany and Italy.
Universities are taking action against racist students – but is this the best route?
Universities are taking disciplinary action against students they find guilty of racist behaviour, but does this effectively tackle the culture of racism on campus?
The University of Exeter is the most recent institution to suspend students for racist behaviour after a group of law students made discriminatory comments in private messages that were later posted on social media.
A similar situation occurred at the University of Alabama earlier this year when a student was expelled for posting racist comments on her Instagram.
These reports can understandably spark anxiety about studying abroad, as students may be concerned they will be the victims of discrimination.
How to Deal With Racism
It seems you cannot turn on the news without seeing stories about hate crimes, riots, and even police violence attributed to racism. But what is racism, and what can you do to fight it? Learning about racism and recognizing its effects is the first step in combating it when you encounter it personally, when you witness acts of racism or discrimination, or when race and racism become topics in the media.
1.Know that you are not over-reacting.
Like harassment, brief and often unintentional acts of racial discrimination (known as “microaggressions”) might seem like no big deal to other people, but if it bothers you, it has to stop.
Studies show that people of color experience racial microaggressions every day, but perpetrators almost always deny that they’ve done anything wrong or that their actions were racially-motivated. This can leave people of color feeling like they’re imagining things, or worried that if they say something that their experiences will be invalidated by denial.
If you experience a microaggression or a more blatant form of racial hostility, put your own needs first; you can choose to walk away. You are not under any obligation to engage with a person like that.
It is never your job as a victim of racism to “fix” the perpetrator. Engaging in conversations about racism are exhausting, emotionally upsetting, and just plain hard work, and you can just walk away. But, if you want to engage with the person who is at fault, you can choose to do that, too.
3.Make it about the words or behavior
Instead of accusing a person of being racist, which risks raising defensiveness, point out exactly why the behavior or words are problematic.
For example, instead of saying, “You are offensive,” say, “That phrase is pretty offensive to Native Americans.” By using “that phrase” instead of “you,” you take the focus off of the perpetrator and on the words themselves.
4.Be direct with your peers
You are never obligated to accept or deal with racism just to avoid causing friction among your peers. Racism is always wrong and you have every right to say something about it.
If someone is behaving in a way that seems racist to you, point out why it is a problem. You can choose your approach; recognize that people tend to become defensive when they are called out, so the more tact you use, the more likely they are to be receptive to your comments.
5.Deal with a racist comment or behavior in a group setting
When someone in a group does or says something offensive, your approach to dealing with it might be more or less effective depending on several factors. Decide what your goals are when you call out racist behavior in a group: do you want to let everyone present know you won’t listen to that kind of thing, or do you want to preserve a relationship with someone who may have done something inadvertently offensive?
Calling out racist behavior in front of other people, rather than addressing it in private, lets the whole group know you won’t stand for behavior like that directed at you. But it also tends to put people on the defensive when they are called out in front of their friends.
If you feel the behavior was unintentional and you are concerned about preserving the feelings of the perpetrator or maintaining a relationship with that person, you can let it slide temporarily, and later ask if you can talk to them about it in private. There are a lot of drawbacks to waiting to talk about it; one might be that the person will forget what they said or the context, and another is that it sends a message to the group that you are not going to challenge behavior like that.
6.Practice different approaches to racist behavior or comments
There are many ways to respond if something is offensive, and you have to choose what is true to your personality and the relationship you have with the perpetrator.
One approach is to say, “You know, it hurts me when people say or do that, because…” Making it about how you feel can help people be less defensive than if you make it directly about what they do, but it also takes some of the responsibility off of their shoulders, which may not be a good tactic in the long run.
Another, more direct approach is to say, “You should not say or do that. It is offensive to people of a certain race because…” This approach lets people know that their behavior is hurtful and that they should stop.
7.Learn how to deal with racism from a superior
If your teacher or boss is treating you differently because of your race, or making comments that are disparaging or embarrassing, it can be hard to know how to react since they are in a position of power over you and can affect your grades or income.
If you think the racism is unintentional or the result of carelessness and if you otherwise have a good working relationship with this person, consider talking to the teacher or boss. It’s possible that this person is unaware that their behavior is offensive. For example, a teacher who calls on you in class to give the “black point of view” may not realize that doing so is offensive, since black people are not monolithic.
If you do talk to your teacher or boss, be sure to approach them when they are not busy and ask to speak in private. Let them know about your concerns in clear, direct, and unemotional terms: “Sometimes I feel that you unintentionally single me out because of my race. I was hoping we could talk about that so that it doesn’t happen again.”
If you feel that the racism is intentional, malicious, or if you think that discussing it directly with your teacher or boss will result in negative consequences for you or impair your working relationship, you need to talk to the next level of authority. At school, this could be your school counselor or your principal. At work, this could be your human resources office or your boss’s manager. First, be sure you have documented each instance of racism or microaggression. Schedule a private meeting in which you lay out what has happened (including frequency and direct quotes or descriptions of actions from each instance if possible) and why this is unacceptable.
8.Know your rights
If you are experiencing racism at work or in a place of public accommodation, you may have legal rights. Many state and federal laws protect against racial discrimination, most notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
You should contact a lawyer specializing in civil rights or workplace rights if you are experiencing racism that is depriving you of housing, work, safety, or other freedoms. Most states have strict timetables for reporting incidents of discrimination, so be sure to get in touch with a lawyer right away.
If you need to file a lawsuit and cannot afford an attorney, there are many organizations that fight for human rights that might be able to help you. In the United States, consider contacting the Southern Poverty Law Center or the Anti-Defamation League.
Racist people are fueled by bigotry and prejudice and are unlikely to change even if you confront them. Racist actions, however, are often mistakes or the result of growing up in a culture where racism is the norm.
If someone is a racist, confronting them or trying to spend a lot of time educating them about racism and why it bothers you might be a wasted effort. Often they will just claim you are “playing the race card” if you are offended by something they say or do. Very rarely will a real racist person listen to you or change their behavior because it bothers you. In some cases, it could be dangerous to your personal safety to try to confront them.
However, if someone is generally a good person but sometimes makes racist comments or assumptions, you might be able to influence them to stop by teaching them why it is offensive. These people are often completely unaware of the real effects of racism in the world.
It is your decision whether to spend your time trying to deal with racist people, racist behavior, or racist policies. It is not your job to educate people just because you happen to be a minority.
Enduring racism is taxing and can be emotionally traumatizing. Be sure to surround yourself with a support system of trusted individuals and take time for yourself to build your emotional and psychological strength.
Join student associations for students of color, political organizations, or other affinity groups to meet and network with other people experiencing similar things. Talk to your family members about stressful events and how to cope. Studies show that having people with whom you can discuss shared negative experiences is an important factor in coping with related stress.
Dealing with Racism Directed at Others
People often ignore racial comments or jokes out of discomfort, not knowing what to say. But preparing a response ahead of time can help you to feel empowered to respond and do your part to stand up for what is right. There are several approaches you can take depending on your personality, the relationship you have with the speaker, and the situation:
Consider saying, “That’s not ok.” In some situations, like in the middle of class or when you have to get off of the bus, you might not have the time or ability to go into a full-blown conversation about what someone has said, but you can simply let them know that their behavior has crossed a line. You’ll feel good knowing you stood up for what is right.
Try saying, “Wow, that was really racist. Why did you say that?” Opening up the conversation will help the person reflect on whether they should have said what they did.
If it’s a joke, try saying, “Why is that funny?” in a very serious tone, like you really don’t get the joke. Forcing someone to explain why it’s funny makes the person have to consider the racist implications of what they have said. After they explain, if they still seem to think it’s funny, you might say, “That’s really racist.”
Sometimes the worst offenders are members of your own family, like your dear Grandpa or your own mother. Your family member might make racist jokes or comments, or might actively discriminate against other races (for instance, not allowing you to date a black person or not allowing an Indian friend to visit your home). It can be a tricky situation for you, since the person might be someone you respect and need to obey (for instance, your parents if you still live at home).
Stay calm, but let your feelings be known. Family is built on love and trust, and you should be confident to let your family members know when they have said or done something that is offensive. Don’t yell, don’t get personal, but do let them know: for instance, you might say “I didn’t like what you said,” “It bothered me that you said that,” or ask them to explain why they say things that are racist. This might open the conversation and provide an opportunity for you to teach them why their behavior is problematic.
Be aware that sometimes this will escalate the problem; for instance, if your Uncle Bill knows that racist jokes bother you, he might purposely tell more.
If your parents have rules about who you can befriend that are racist, you have a choice to make. You can abide by their rules while you live in their home, or you can choose to go behind their back and disregard their rules. Realize that doing this might have consequences for you if they find out.
Sometimes, nothing you can do or say will influence a racist family member to stop doing or saying hurtful things. You can choose to avoid that person as much as possible, and you can continue to let them know how you feel about their racism, but unfortunately sometimes it just won’t help. Learn from their choices and do your best to avoid harboring prejudiced or bigoted ideas or habits.
3.Be an ally
If you are against racism, but you are not a minority, you can play an important role in confronting racism when you see it. By learning to recognize acts of microaggression against people of color, you can use your position of privilege to help fight racism in all its forms.
Practice talking about race in “safe spaces.” Racism is a hard topic and people who are not minorities are often taught that they should not talk about or “see” racial differences. This makes it really hard to fight racism when it occurs, because you may not have experience talking about race at all. Find other allies who want to combat racism, and practice acting out scenarios of racism that you might encounter in your daily lives.
Dealing with Racism in Society
1.Meet people who are different from you
In some parts of the world it can be hard to get to know people of other races. It’s natural to gravitate toward people who seem similar to you, and sometimes that means we end up with friends who are all of our own race. Go out of your way to learn about other cultures and ways of experiencing the world. This will enrich your own perspective of the world and help your friends, family, or children to view friendships with people who are different as normal and acceptable.
Visit cultural fairs, festivals, and meet-and-greet activities in your community. Visit the local library or community center to find out information.
Join a club, start a new hobby, visit a church or house of worship, or join a team to meet new people.
Race has become a very taboo topic because many people have been taught since childhood that its rude or inappropriate to discuss race. But as long as racism exists, discussion, willingness to learn, and empathy are vital; studies show that talking about race leads to increased understanding and tolerance. Take the opportunity to initiate discussion.
If you are a parent, talk to your children about race. Don’t shush them if they mention that someone is a different color than they are; its normal for kids to notice differences. Teach them that differences are good! Say something like, “Yes, isn’t that neat? Joe has dark skin and you have light skin. We are all so different!”
When your children are old enough to understand, talk to them about racism. If you are a minority, you can prepare your child for what she will likely encounter and help build up her self-esteem and confidence so that she will know how to react appropriately if something ever happens. If you are not a minority, it’s still vital to talk to your children about racism. Teach them the history of race in your country, and talk to them about why some people are racist towards others (prejudices, stereotypes, bigotry, etc.).
If you are able, donate money or volunteer with organizations that work to end racism in your local community or nation. Some examples in the United States include:
The Southern Poverty Law Center
The Anti-Defamation League
The Human Rights Campaign
1.Know the difference between racism, bigotry, and prejudice
Often times these words are used interchangeably in the media or in conversation, but there are differences that are worth understanding. Knowing the difference between these concepts can also help you in conversation, when people often use the wrong term for what they mean.
Racism has to do with a system of oppression of a group of people based on their race, skin color, or ethnicity. In general, racism involves a majority race or ethnic group creating laws, policies, systems, and cultural norms that favors their own race at the expense of minority races or ethnic groups.
Bigotry, on the other hand, is about hatred. Bigotry means hating an entire group of people because of who they are and/or believing that your own group is superior, and it is not limited to race or ethnicity; you can be bigoted towards a group based on religion, gender, sexual orientation, race, disability, etc. For example, the Holocaust was motivated by bigotry, as are all hate crimes in United States law.
Prejudice (literally meaning “to pre-judge”) means assuming you know something about a person because of a group they are affiliated with. While it usually carries a negative connotation, prejudice isn’t always obviously bad. For example, its prejudiced to assume that all Asians are good at math or that all black people are good singers or good athletes. Those are stereotypes based on race. You can also be prejudiced against a person because of their religion, gender, disability, etc., so like bigotry, prejudice is not limited to race.
2.Understand how these three intersect and relate to racism
Sometimes racist policies or practices are “obvious” (at least when we look back on them historically), for example, the United States’ history of slavery (which at the time was legally and religiously justified as natural and acceptable) was based on a racist system. Other times, people disagree about whether or not particular policies or practices are racist; for example, some people argue that Affirmative Action policies (which require companies in the United States to hire a certain quota of people from different demographic groups) are racist, while other people argue that AA policies help prevent racism.
Because racism is about a group in power mistreating a minority group, “reverse racism” (which is often used to describe when a member of a minority group mistreats a member of a majority group because of their race) is a misnomer. It should actually be called “bigotry” or “prejudice” rather than “racism.”
It is important to keep in mind that you can support racism without being bigoted. In fact, you can support racism without even knowing it, since racism is a larger system of oppression.
A sad but sobering reality about the nature of human civilizations throughout history is that nearly all major civilizations have struggled with racism. This is because racism is about those in power (the majority) mistreating those without power (the minority), and race is one of the major identity fault lines that people have historically used to designate who has power and who doesn’t.
In North America, the history of racism arguably starts with the conquest of indigenous tribes (Native Americans or Indians) by white European settlers. Literally, one racial group had more power than another (in the form of weapons and diseases that wiped out entire populations).
During the Victorian period in Europe, racism became cemented into Western thought through supposedly “scientific” findings about the differences between the races. With influences from Darwinian evolutionary theory, scientists believed that white Anglo races had evolved further than others.
5.Recognize the results of racism
Because racism is systemic, its effects can be seen in the media, government, school system, and even in religion.
Notice stereotypes about different races and ethnicities in television, books and movies. The popularity of video and computer games provides even more avenues for racism. Contact the people behind racist products and explain your objection. Refuse to support any business or organization that permits racism.
6.Understand that not all racism is obvious
In day-to-day life, “microaggressions” are more common than obvious blatant hostility, but can be just as hurtful. As the term suggests, microaggressions are small acts of discrimination that many people might not recognize at all– but over time, for people of color, they become obvious and hurtful.
A microaggression can be anything from subconsciously moving away from a person of color on the train, asking a black woman if her hair is really “hers”, or asking an Asian-American where she is “really” from.
Microaggressions, unlike blatant acts of hate, are often unintentional. This makes it harder to “prove” it happened for the person of color, who risks appearing too touchy or being accused of pulling “the race card” if she objects to these types of acts.